The Role of The Iconic Food Exposure Model: "Warung Tegal" (Warteg) Manuver in the Disaster of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Central Java, Indonesia

Rif’ah Dwi Astuti, Sri Wahyuni, Andi Setiawan, Bagus Yunianto Wibowo


The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a business in this case Warung Tegal (Warteg) to experience a decline in turnover of up to eighty percent. Warung Tegal (Warteg) as a business unit must change their business orientation to be able to operate under any conditions. This study analyzes the entrepreneurial orientation of companies (Warteg) in various different contexts. Given the existing literature on entrepreneurship, we depart from the hypothesis that the context in which a business operates determines the importance of each dimension comprising the multidimensional concept of entrepreneurial orientation, thereby moderating its influence on marketing performance. The sample for this study consisted of 205 small and medium-sized Warung Tegal (Warteg) companies in Central Java. We tested the hypothesis by measuring the moderating effect of context on the structural equation modeling technique. The results of this study found that the critical moderating role of Iconic Food Exposure strengthens the relationship between Iconic Food Exposure and mediates the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Competitive Maneuverability, and that competitive strategy strengthens the relationship between Iconic Food Exposure and Marketing performance.


Entrepreneurial Orientation, Competitive Maneuverability, Iconic Food Exposure, Marketing Performance

Full Text:



Adomako, S. (2017). The Moderating Effects of Adaptive and Intellectual Resource Capabilities on The Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Financial Performance. International Journal of Innovation Management, 1850026. doi:10.1142/S1363919618500263

Anisimova, T. (2016). The effects of corporate brand symbolism on consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 28(3), 481-498. doi:

Asemokha, A., Musona, J., Torkkeli, L., & Saarenketo, S. (2019). Business model innovation and entrepreneurial orientation relationships in SMEs: Implications for international performance. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 17(3), 425-453. doi:10.1007/s10843-019-00254-3

Brem, A., Maier, M., & Wimschneider, C. (2016). Competitive advantage through innovation: the case of Nespresso. European Journal of Innovation Management, 19(1), 133-148. doi:

Brozovic, D., Nordin, F., & Kindström, D. (2016). Service flexibility: conceptualizing value creation in service. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(6), 868-888. doi:10.1108/jstp-09-2014-0219

Frenzel, J. E. (2020). Exploration of the entrepreneurial orientation and trait emotional intelligence in practicing pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). doi:10.1016/j.japh.2020.01.022

Garner, B., & Ayala, C. (2019). Regional tourism at the farmers’ market: consumers’ preferences for local food products. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(1), 37-54. doi:

Giachetti, C. (2016). Competing in Emerging Markets: Performance Implications of Competitive Aggressiveness. Management International Review, 56(3), 325-352. doi:

Gupta, V. K., Niranjan, S., & Markin, E. (2019). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: the mediating role of generative and acquisitive learning through customer relationships. Review of Managerial Science. doi:10.1007/s11846-019-00327-6

Guzmán, C., Santos, F. J., & Barroso, M. d. l. O. (2019). Analysing the links between cooperative principles, entrepreneurial orientation and performance. Small Business Economics. doi:10.1007/s11187-019-00174-5

Han, C., & Zhang, S. (2021). Multiple strategic orientations and strategic flexibility in product innovation. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 27(1). doi:10.1016/j.iedeen.2020.100136

Heinberg, M., Ozkaya, H. E., & Taube, M. (2017). The influence of global and local iconic brand positioning on advertising persuasion in an emerging market setting. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(8), 1009-1022. doi:

Li, Y., & Shang, H. (2020). Service quality, perceived value, and citizens’ continuous-use intention regarding e-government: Empirical evidence from China. Information & Management, 57(3). doi:10.1016/

Lindblom, A., Lindblom, T., & Wechtler, H. (2020). Dispositional optimism, entrepreneurial success and exit intentions: The mediating effects of life satisfaction. Journal of Business Research, 120, 230-240. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.08.012

Liu, J., Sheng, S., Shu, C., & Zhao, M. (2021). R&D, networking expenses, and firm performance: An integration of the inside-out and outside-in perspectives. Industrial Marketing Management, 92, 111-121. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2020.11.010

Mahfud, T., Triyono, M. B., Sudira, P., & Mulyani, Y. (2020). The influence of social capital and entrepreneurial attitude orientation on entrepreneurial intentions: the mediating role of psychological capital. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 26(1), 33-39. doi:10.1016/j.iedeen.2019.12.005

Mohamed, M. E., Hewedi, M., Lehto, X., & Maayouf, M. (2019). Marketing local food and cuisine culture online: a case study of DMO’s websites in Egypt. International Journal of Tourism Cities, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi:10.1108/ijtc-05-2019-0067

Morgan, T., & Anokhin, S. A. (2020). The joint impact of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation in new product development: Studying firm and environmental contingencies. Journal of Business Research, 113, 129-138. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.06.019

Munawar, F. (2019). The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Adaptive Capability to Performance of SME Food & Beverages. Global Business and Management Research, 11(1), 139-151.

Njoroge, M., Anderson, W., Mossberg, L., & Omari, M. (2020). Entrepreneurial orientation in the hospitality industry: evidence from Tanzania. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(4), 523-543. doi:

Redjeki, F., & Affandi, A. (2021). Utilization of Digital Marketing for MSME Players as Value Creation for Customers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Science and Society, 3(1), 40-55.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business : a skill-building approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Seventh Edition.

Sidali, K. L., Morocho, P. Y., & Garrido-Perez, E. I. (2016). Food Tourism in Indigenous Settings as a Strategy of Sustainable Development: The Case of Ilex guayusa Loes. in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Sustainability, 8(10), 967. doi:

Silva, P., Teixeira Vale, V. T., & Moutinho, V. F. (2021). What is the value of entrepreneurial orientation on the network and performance? An examination in trade fairs context. Innovation & Management Review, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi:10.1108/INMR-05-2020-0068

Sulistiyono, D. (2020). Lockdown, Work at Home as Impact Corona Viruses Sustainability of Warteg Traders in Cimahi. Journal of Sustainable Business Hub, 1(1), 12-21.

Viete, S., & Erdsiek, D. (2020). Mobile Information Technologies and Firm Performance: The Role of Employee Autonomy. Information Economics and Policy, 51. doi:10.1016/j.infoecopol.2020.100863

Yang, Y., Gong, Y., Land, L. P. W., & Chesney, T. (2020). Understanding the effects of physical experience and information integration on consumer use of online to offline commerce. International Journal of Information Management, 51, 102046. doi:

Yufan, J., Zhou, Z., & Zhou, N. (2019). Brand cultural symbolism, brand authenticity, and consumer well-being: the moderating role of cultural involvement. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 28(4), 529-539. doi:

Zhang, J. A., O'Kane, C., & Chen, G. (2020). Business ties, political ties, and innovation performance in Chinese industrial firms: The role of entrepreneurial orientation and environmental dynamism. Journal of Business Research, 121, 254-267. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.08.055

Zhang, Z., Wang, X., & Jia, M. (2020). Echoes of CEO Entrepreneurial Orientation: How and When CEO Entrepreneurial Orientation Influences Dual CSR Activities. Journal of Business Ethics. doi:10.1007/s10551-020-04553-x

Zhou, W., Su, D., Yang, J., Tao, D., & Sohn, D. (2021). When do strategic orientations matter to innovation performance of green-tech ventures? The moderating effects of network positions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 279, 123743. doi:

Zhu, Z., Zhao, J., & Bush, A. A. (2020). The effects of e-business processes in supply chain operations: Process component and value creation mechanisms. International Journal of Information Management, 50, 273-285. doi:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats