The Role of Social Interaction and Attitude Toward Using in Online Learning during the Covid 19 Pandemic: An SDL Theory Perspective

Andi Setiawan, Saptianing Saptianing, Riyadi Riyadi


The Covid-19 pandemic has created a situation that requires students to accept Online Learning as a consequence. Universities must turn barriers to online learning into an advantage for students. Our study draws on established Service-Dominant Logic (SDL) theory and literature to examine holistically how the value of online learning is perceived and co-created by two key stakeholders, namely professional service providers (Universities) and their clients in online learning (students). Therefore, this study aims to develop and test a conceptual model of the factors that influence student adoption of online learning systems, especially those built from easy-to-use variables. pleasure, social interaction, and user behavior. The data for this study were obtained from online questionnaire responses (n=179) and then analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of this study confirm that the expansion of the SDL provides a useful theoretical model to help understand and explain the acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in online learning models. The results of this study also show that UTAUT is a factor that positively affects the variables of pleasure, social interaction, and attitude toward using.


Perceived Easy of Use, Perceived Enjoyment, Social Interactions, Attitude Toward Using, Online Learning, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Service-Dominant Logic

Full Text:



Abbad, M. M. M. (2021). Using the UTAUT model to understand students’ usage of e-learning systems in developing countries. Education and Information Technologies. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10573-5

Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online Learning amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Students' Perspectives. Online Submission, 2(1), 45-51.

Allam, H., Bliemel, M., Spiteri, L., Blustein, J., & Ali-Hassan, H. (2019). Applying a multi-dimensional hedonic concept of intrinsic motivation on social tagging tools: A theoretical model and empirical validation. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 211-222. doi:

Alshurafat, H., Al Shbail, M. O., Masadeh, W. M., Dahmash, F., & Al-Msiedeen, J. M. (2021). Factors affecting online accounting education during the COVID-19 pandemic: an integrated perspective of social capital theory, the theory of reasoned action and the technology acceptance model. Education and Information Technologies. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10550-y

Álvarez-Marín, A., Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Á., & Castillo-Vergara, M. (2021). Technology Acceptance of an Interactive Augmented Reality App on Resistive Circuits for Engineering Students. Electronics, 10(11), 1286. doi:

As’adi, M., Dewi, A. C., Andy, R., & Zaman, A. N. (2021). xtended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for “Desa Digital” Mobile Application Users: A Literature Study. IOP Conference Series. Materials Science and Engineering, 1125(1). doi:

Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding the challenges for students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology.

Chih, Y.-Y., Zwikael, O., & Restubog, S. L. D. (2019). Enhancing value co-creation in professional service projects: The roles of professionals, clients and their effective interactions. International Journal of Project Management, 37(5), 599-615. doi:

Danner-Schröder, A. (2020). Without actors, there is no action: How interpersonal interactions help to explain routine dynamics. Review of Managerial Science. doi:10.1007/s11846-020-00408-x

Deng, W., & Hendrikse, G. (2018). Social interactions and product quality: the value of pooling in cooperative entrepreneurial networks. Small Business Economics, 50(4), 749-761. doi:10.1007/s11187-017-9893-3


Ferdinand, A. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling Dalam Penelitian Manjajemen, Aplikasi Model-Model Rumit Dalam Penelitian Untuk Tesis Magister & Disertasi Doktor. 5.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. doi:10.1108/ebr-11-2018-0203

Hartmann, N. N., Wieland, H., Vargo, S. L., & Ahearne, M. (2020). Advancing sales theory through a holistic view: how social structures frame selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 40(4), 221-226. doi:10.1080/08853134.2020.1838916

Ibrahim Youssef, A. (2021). E-Learning Acceptance: The Role of Task–Technology Fit as Sustainability in Higher Education. Sustainability, 13(11), 6450. doi:

Izuagbe, R., Ibrahim, N. A., Ogiamien, L. O., Olawoyin, O. R., Nwokeoma, N. M., Ilo, P. I., & Osayande, O. (2019). Effect of perceived ease of use on librarians' e-skills: Basis for library technology acceptance intention. Library & Information Science Research, 41(3), 100969. doi:

Jahanshahi, D., Tabibi, Z., & van Wee, B. (2020). Factors influencing the acceptance and use of a bicycle sharing system: Applying an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Case Studies on Transport Policy, 8(4), 1212-1223. doi:10.1016/j.cstp.2020.08.002

Jatimoyo, D., Rohman, F., & Djazuli, A. (2021). The effect of perceived ease of use on continuance intention through perceived usefulness and trust: A study on Klikindomaret service users in Malang City. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 10(4), 430-437. doi:

Kaewsaiha, P., & Chanchalor, S. (2021). Factors affecting the usage of learning management systems in higher education. Education and Information Technologies, 26(3), 2919-2939. doi:10.1007/s10639-020-10374-2

Lee, J., Kim, J., & Choi, J. Y. (2019). The adoption of virtual reality devices: The technology acceptance model integrating enjoyment, social interaction, and strength of the social ties. Telematics and Informatics, 39, 37-48. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2018.12.006

Lin, C.-L., Jin, Y. Q., Zhao, Q., Yu, S.-W., & Su, Y.-S. (2021). Factors Influence Students’ Switching Behavior to Online Learning under COVID-19 Pandemic: A Push–Pull–Mooring Model Perspective. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(3), 229-245. doi:10.1007/s40299-021-00570-0

Luo, Y., Lin, J., & Yang, Y. (2021). Students’ motivation and continued intention with online self-regulated learning: A self-determination theory perspective. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft. doi:10.1007/s11618-021-01042-3

Lusch, R. F., & Vargo, S. L. (2016). Service-dominant logic: reactions, reflections and refinements. Marketing Theory, 6(3), 281-288. doi:10.1177/1470593106066781

Maecker, O., Barrot, C., & Becker, J. U. (2016). The effect of social media interactions on customer relationship management. Business Research, 9(1), 133-155. doi:10.1007/s40685-016-0027-6

Mailizar, M., Burg, D., & Maulina, S. (2021). Examining university students’ behavioural intention to use e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: An extended TAM model. Education and Information Technologies. doi:10.1007/s10639-021-10557-5

Mushtaq, H., Jing-dong, Y., Ahmed, M., & Ali, M. (2019). Building Usage Attitude for Mobile Shopping Applications: an Emerging Market Perspective. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 5, 21-28.

Parahoo, S. K., & Al-Nakeeb, A. A. (2019). Investigating antecedents of social innovation in public sector using a service ecosystem lens. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 16(2), 235-253. doi:10.1007/s12208-019-00229-z

Polese, F., Sarno, D., & Vargo, S. L. (2020). The role of emergence in service systems. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Rahman, T., Kim, Y. S., Noh, M., & Lee, C. K. (2021). A study on the determinants of social media based learning in higher education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(2), 1325-1351. doi:10.1007/s11423-021-09987-2

Razif, M., Miraja, B. A., Persada, S. F., Nadlifatin, R., Belgiawan, P. F., Redi, A. A. N. P., & Shu-Chiang, L. (2020). Investigating the role of environmental concern and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology on working from home technologies adoption during COVID-19. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(1), 795.

Schultz, C. D. (2016). Insights from consumer interactions on a social networking site: Findings from six apparel retail brands. Electronic Markets, 26(3), 203-217. doi:10.1007/s12525-015-0209-7

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business : a skill-building approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Seventh Edition.

Tamilmani, K., Rana, N. P., Prakasam, N., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2019). The battle of Brain vs. Heart: A literature review and meta-analysis of “hedonic motivation” use in UTAUT2. International Journal of Information Management, 46, 222-235. doi:

Vargo, S. L. (2018). Marketing Relevance Through Market Theory: Revista Brasileira de Marketing Revista Brasileira de Marketing. REMark, 17(5), 730-746. doi:

Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2015). Institutions and axioms: an extension and update of service-dominant logic. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 5-23. doi:10.1007/s11747-015-0456-3

Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2017). Service-dominant logic 2025. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34(1), 46-67. doi:

Yang, M., Mamun, A. A., Mohiuddin, M., Zainol, N. R., & Nawi, N. C. (2021). Cashless Transactions: A Study on Intention and Adoption of e-Wallets. Sustainability, 13(2), 831. doi:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats